Hey guys, today we are going to look at a very different technology used many centuries ago in India. This ancient site is known as Warangal Fort and it is a massive site which is completely in ruins now. You can see that it does not look like a fort at all, but this place is called a fort because there are many levels of fortifications and defense systems around this, but they have a much larger circumference, so we can’t see them from here. Today, let’s specifically look at how these rocks were cut. When you first enter the site, you are amazed at the thousands of rocks that are just strewn around like piles of garbage. When you examine these rocks closely, you are amazed because ..just see how complex each block is. How were the magnificent structures created? Archeologists and historians are adamant and claim that all these structures were built using nothing more than primitive tools and hard labor. Is this true? Or did ancient builders use advanced technology and high-tech machines to accomplish this feat?
Let us take a look at these stone artifacts. They have a strange Latticework done on them and are called as Jali in India. Each Jali Stone has many holes and looks like a ventilator or a window, but these are not straight slots or round holes. Each hole has many corners. But this is not the real problem, it is quite possible to carve a hole with many corners using simple tools. The problem is, all these multi-cornered holes are perfectly identical to one another. Experts are shocked at how precisely identical their dimensions are, they are perfect down to the millimeter. If we observe carefully, these designs look as though they have been made using a mechanical device like a cookie cutter. Experts agree that such precision is not possible manually. Did ancient builders use some kind of a cookie cutter like device to make these type of structures? Geologists have not examined these structures fully, but they think most of these Jalis are made of black basalt, a very hard rock. Forget ancient technology, we still don’t have a cutting device which can cut identical shapes on hard rocks like black basalt. We would have to use a computer and CNC machines to create these identical slots. Did ancient builders use something like CNC machines? Or did they use some other technology?
But this identical design is not just limited to holes, they are also seen in other blocks. For example look at this series of Lions – there are many lions in this block, but if you observe them carefully, they look identical. Remember, this site was destroyed by the Sultan of Delhi for religious reasons, and historians confirm that these stones were lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years. But even after 700 years of erosion, corrosion and willful destruction, we can only see minor damages. Look at the three dimensional gaps between them. Is it manually possible to carve underneath these areas or were they using machines like engraving, carving and drilling machines?
Historians and archeologists vehemently argue that ancient builders did everything with chisels and hammers and did not use rotating machines, but this site provides some solid evidence that drilling machines were used in ancient times. Here we can see a perfectly drilled hole. Do these look like chisel marks? You can see these concentric circles caused by the flutes of a drill bit. Archeologists confirm that these are in fact ancient tool marks. This is how it looks after lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years and look at how perfect it looks. Imagine how it would have looked when it was created. So we know as a matter of fact that ancient builders were using rotating drilling and carving machines, but is this how these Jalis are made? Even with mechanized carving tools, it would still be impossible to make such identical holes. So, they must have used some other kind of technology to create these designs.
To understand this, we need to look at how Jalis are made today. In India, Jali making is not only considered an ancient art, but Jalis are still widely used in rural homes even today. So, how do they make these identical designs? The answer is quite simple, they don’t use hard substances like rocks, they use soft substances like clay or liquid cement and then cast them into identical pieces. For example, we can pour concrete or put wet cement into a cast and after it solidifies, it looks and feels as hard as a rock. Surprisingly, the Jali makers of India whose families have been working in this field for many centuries tell us that this is exactly the same process they have been doing for many centuries. Today, they are using concrete, but in ancient times they used some other powders or liquid material to create ancient Jalis.
Are these Jalis in Warangal Fort really made of black basalt? Or are they made of some other materials which merely look like black basalt? Today, we use materials called Geopolymers, and we use them to build various structures. The geopolymers are soft, powdery, and are even liquids and are made of the same material as rocks and can be cast into any desired size or complex designs. Once they solidify and harden, it will be impossible to tell the difference between geopolymers and regular rocks, unless you take a sample and examine its components. Some experts have claimed this is how the Pyramid of Giza was built – according to them, these huge stone blocks are not stone blocks at all, they are geopolymer blocks. If we visit any industry which creates Geopolymer blocks using casting, we can see large tanks being used for pouring, storing and periodic usage of geopolymer liquid. Is this why Warangal Fort has these gigantic tanks?
Perhaps these tanks were also used to store and use geopolymer liquid. Were ancient builders in India, using the same technology of pouring geopolymers and casting them into desired shapes? To understand this, we need to go to one of the oldest Temples in India. This temple called the Kailasanathar temple, is at least 1300 years old. Some historians believe that this South Indian Temple served as a model of the famous Kailasa Temple in Ellora Caves. While the Kailasa Temple in the North is known for its extraordinary Rock Cutting Technology, this temple in the South is famous for something very mysterious. The rocks which make up this temple are not rocks at all. According to locals in this town and the priest of this temple, these are geopolymer blocks.
Listen to what the priest says. These walls and statues in this temple show some strange details, they don’t show the properties of normal rocks. Archeologists insist that these are made of sandstone, however many of these statues and walls have become flaky, and are slowly peeling off – this is not how sandstone behaves. And we can see something much more startling – We can see bricks laid inside these statues, and covered with rock like coating. This is definitely a sign of geopolymers because if these blocks are made of solid sandstone, it would be impossible to place bricks inside. So ancient builders were definitely using geopolymers as liquids or powders and casting them into desired shapes.
But what’s really fascinating is the number of attempts by the archeology department to renovate this temple. The temple was in very good condition until 1910, when the Archeology Department, which was then under British control decided to apply plaster on the walls and carvings in the name of preservation. However, immediately after the application of Plaster, the structure began disintegrating rapidly. The components of the geopolymer must have had a chemical reaction with the plaster, so the temple walls started peeling off. The archeology department has tried unsuccessfully at least 5 times in the last century to somehow maintain the temple, but after the initial reaction in 1910, the temple never came back to its original state, it is actually declining every year. So, I think there is no doubt that ancient builders were using geopolymer technology and I think Kailasanathar temple and Warangal Fort structures clearly prove this beyond any doubt.
But the structures in Warangal fort have not disintegrated because they have not been tampered with artificial chemicals. And Warangal fort area has some fascinating evidence like the floating rocks. Remember I have already shown you in a previous video, how ancient builders were creating floating rocks. This rock is not a naturally occurring rock, these rocks were in fact molded and cast artificially. Today, we use the same technology and call them Autoclaved Aerated Concrete or AAC blocks. So, geopolymer technology was definitely available in ancient times, however we cannot confirm if these artifacts were cast using geopolymers, unless we examine a sample in a lab.
So, what do you think? Did ancient builders in India use geopolymers? Or were these carved on solid stone using simple tools?