Ancient Secret of Symbols Found in Palm-Leaf Manuscripts? Indian Writing System Revealed

Hey guys, today we are going to look at how ancient Indians wrote and preserved their sacred texts. Around the world, there have been many different writing practices, the Egyptians were using Papyrus, Sumerians used clay tablets, but in India, Palm-Leaves were used. The earliest known palm leaf manuscript is about 2600 years old, and almost all ancient Indian texts were exclusively written on these palm leaves, and only a very small portion was written on metal plates and on stones as inscriptions. I have shown you several ancient stone inscriptions in my other videos, but in this video let us focus on Palm-Leaf Manuscripts. My friend Jayesh has a large collection of these manuscripts so let us take a closer look at them.

Here you can see palm leaves which date back several centuries and the question that immediately pops into your mind is this: How do palm leaves survive for this many centuries? Why are they not damaged by termites, dampness or by mere human touch? These palm leaves are carefully prepared from a specific type of palm called Borassus or Palmyra Palm. The young shoots are cut off from the tree and these shoots are boiled in water and then dried in shade for several days. After drying, the palm leaves would be polished using pumice stone. At this stage, the palm leaf would be ready for writing.

So what kind of pen and ink were used? This weird device was used for writing, and there is no ink involved. It looks very strange, but this instrument has a pointed stylus on one end and there is a knife on the other end. Did they use the knife as a weapon? No, they used it to cut the leaf into desired size. The pointy stylus did not dip into a pot of ink, but the stylus was pressed with sufficient pressure to imprint words, we can still use the same process and inscribe words on palm leaves . And we can read the words – this reads Palm Leaf. We do see some manuscripts which have used ink, writing with ink was practiced in Tibet, and in some other parts of ancient India, But the most popular writing process, was inscribing words on these leaves without ink.

And the question is WHY? Why did they not use ink, unlike other cultures? Because it is easy to erase, modify and tamper with original writings if ink is used. On the other hand, there is no way to change the contents of these palm leaves. This why ancient Indians preferred this method and I suspect that this is one of the key reasons why India still has so many ancient texts which have not been tampered with.

Now, back to the question of, how did these palm leaves survive for so many centuries? After writing on these palm leaves, they used a compound of turmeric and another herb to protect these leaves. This paste was thoroughly smeared on all sides, so it will not become damp or be attacked by insects. This is why we still have these manuscripts in excellent condition. These leaves will then be tied together using a string made of bamboo or coir.

Going back to the stylus, my friend collects antiques, and has collected so many different types of styluses. This is the simplest and perhaps the oldest one, it is just a sharp, nail like stylus. There are several ones made of ivory, ivory was very popular back then. Almost all of the ivory ones have knives included for cutting the leaves. The styluses from Sri Lanka have a stand at the bottom, so they can stand upright on tables. And we can see many other types of Styli made of bull horns, deer horns, wood and metal and some people also have the owner’s name carved on it as well, we can still read this today. Scribes typically use something called a sharpening stone, to sharpen their stylus periodically.

Most of these palm leaf manuscripts are written in ancient Tamil language, although some leaves written in Sanskrit language are also found from time to time. Today, Hindus have a strange habit, they make a mark on top of the page before beginning to write anything. In South India, this mark looks like the number 2 and an underline and two dots, but has no meaning and this symbol is known as ‘Pillayar Suzhi’. In the North, they use the letter Shri on top before writing anything. Today, many educated people laugh at this practice and point out that ancient Hindus were superstitious and began their writing with a prayer. Is this a meaningless superstition?

Let us go back in time, about a thousand years ago, imagine you are a scribe, and your job is to write on palm leaves. When you receive a fresh set of palm leaves, what would you do? Should you begin writing immediately? No, because halfway through your writing, you may realize that the palm leaf has not been properly processed and it can get torn when you inscribe a complicated letter with a stylus. So you have to test the leaves before writing anything. This is why you make this mark and use a circle, a curve and some lines to make sure the leaves have been properly processed to withstand the inscription. So, ancient Indians were actually quite pragmatic and were even clever enough to make this into a universal system across the nation.
Praveen Mohan

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Ancient Kailasa Nathar Temple was NOT built with Stones? Advanced Technology Revealed!

Hey guys, today we are going to look at a very different technology used many centuries ago in India. This ancient site is known as Warangal Fort and it is a massive site which is completely in ruins now. You can see that it does not look like a fort at all, but this place is called a fort because there are many levels of fortifications and defense systems around this, but they have a much larger circumference, so we can’t see them from here. Today, let’s specifically look at how these rocks were cut. When you first enter the site, you are amazed at the thousands of rocks that are just strewn around like piles of garbage. When you examine these rocks closely, you are amazed because ..just see how complex each block is. How were the magnificent structures created? Archeologists and historians are adamant and claim that all these structures were built using nothing more than primitive tools and hard labor. Is this true? Or did ancient builders use advanced technology and high-tech machines to accomplish this feat?

Let us take a look at these stone artifacts. They have a strange Latticework done on them and are called as Jali in India. Each Jali Stone has many holes and looks like a ventilator or a window, but these are not straight slots or round holes. Each hole has many corners. But this is not the real problem, it is quite possible to carve a hole with many corners using simple tools. The problem is, all these multi-cornered holes are perfectly identical to one another. Experts are shocked at how precisely identical their dimensions are, they are perfect down to the millimeter. If we observe carefully, these designs look as though they have been made using a mechanical device like a cookie cutter. Experts agree that such precision is not possible manually. Did ancient builders use some kind of a cookie cutter like device to make these type of structures? Geologists have not examined these structures fully, but they think most of these Jalis are made of black basalt, a very hard rock. Forget ancient technology, we still don’t have a cutting device which can cut identical shapes on hard rocks like black basalt. We would have to use a computer and CNC machines to create these identical slots. Did ancient builders use something like CNC machines? Or did they use some other technology?

But this identical design is not just limited to holes, they are also seen in other blocks. For example look at this series of Lions – there are many lions in this block, but if you observe them carefully, they look identical. Remember, this site was destroyed by the Sultan of Delhi for religious reasons, and historians confirm that these stones were lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years. But even after 700 years of erosion, corrosion and willful destruction, we can only see minor damages. Look at the three dimensional gaps between them. Is it manually possible to carve underneath these areas or were they using machines like engraving, carving and drilling machines?

Historians and archeologists vehemently argue that ancient builders did everything with chisels and hammers and did not use rotating machines, but this site provides some solid evidence that drilling machines were used in ancient times. Here we can see a perfectly drilled hole. Do these look like chisel marks? You can see these concentric circles caused by the flutes of a drill bit. Archeologists confirm that these are in fact ancient tool marks. This is how it looks after lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years and look at how perfect it looks. Imagine how it would have looked when it was created. So we know as a matter of fact that ancient builders were using rotating drilling and carving machines, but is this how these Jalis are made? Even with mechanized carving tools, it would still be impossible to make such identical holes. So, they must have used some other kind of technology to create these designs.

To understand this, we need to look at how Jalis are made today. In India, Jali making is not only considered an ancient art, but Jalis are still widely used in rural homes even today. So, how do they make these identical designs? The answer is quite simple, they don’t use hard substances like rocks, they use soft substances like clay or liquid cement and then cast them into identical pieces. For example, we can pour concrete or put wet cement into a cast and after it solidifies, it looks and feels as hard as a rock. Surprisingly, the Jali makers of India whose families have been working in this field for many centuries tell us that this is exactly the same process they have been doing for many centuries. Today, they are using concrete, but in ancient times they used some other powders or liquid material to create ancient Jalis.

Are these Jalis in Warangal Fort really made of black basalt? Or are they made of some other materials which merely look like black basalt? Today, we use materials called Geopolymers, and we use them to build various structures. The geopolymers are soft, powdery, and are even liquids and are made of the same material as rocks and can be cast into any desired size or complex designs. Once they solidify and harden, it will be impossible to tell the difference between geopolymers and regular rocks, unless you take a sample and examine its components. Some experts have claimed this is how the Pyramid of Giza was built – according to them, these huge stone blocks are not stone blocks at all, they are geopolymer blocks. If we visit any industry which creates Geopolymer blocks using casting, we can see large tanks being used for pouring, storing and periodic usage of geopolymer liquid. Is this why Warangal Fort has these gigantic tanks?

Perhaps these tanks were also used to store and use geopolymer liquid. Were ancient builders in India, using the same technology of pouring geopolymers and casting them into desired shapes? To understand this, we need to go to one of the oldest Temples in India. This temple called the Kailasanathar temple, is at least 1300 years old. Some historians believe that this South Indian Temple served as a model of the famous Kailasa Temple in Ellora Caves. While the Kailasa Temple in the North is known for its extraordinary Rock Cutting Technology, this temple in the South is famous for something very mysterious. The rocks which make up this temple are not rocks at all. According to locals in this town and the priest of this temple, these are geopolymer blocks.

Listen to what the priest says. These walls and statues in this temple show some strange details, they don’t show the properties of normal rocks. Archeologists insist that these are made of sandstone, however many of these statues and walls have become flaky, and are slowly peeling off – this is not how sandstone behaves. And we can see something much more startling – We can see bricks laid inside these statues, and covered with rock like coating. This is definitely a sign of geopolymers because if these blocks are made of solid sandstone, it would be impossible to place bricks inside. So ancient builders were definitely using geopolymers as liquids or powders and casting them into desired shapes.

But what’s really fascinating is the number of attempts by the archeology department to renovate this temple. The temple was in very good condition until 1910, when the Archeology Department, which was then under British control decided to apply plaster on the walls and carvings in the name of preservation. However, immediately after the application of Plaster, the structure began disintegrating rapidly. The components of the geopolymer must have had a chemical reaction with the plaster, so the temple walls started peeling off. The archeology department has tried unsuccessfully at least 5 times in the last century to somehow maintain the temple, but after the initial reaction in 1910, the temple never came back to its original state, it is actually declining every year. So, I think there is no doubt that ancient builders were using geopolymer technology and I think Kailasanathar temple and Warangal Fort structures clearly prove this beyond any doubt.

But the structures in Warangal fort have not disintegrated because they have not been tampered with artificial chemicals. And Warangal fort area has some fascinating evidence like the floating rocks. Remember I have already shown you in a previous video, how ancient builders were creating floating rocks. This rock is not a naturally occurring rock, these rocks were in fact molded and cast artificially. Today, we use the same technology and call them Autoclaved Aerated Concrete or AAC blocks. So, geopolymer technology was definitely available in ancient times, however we cannot confirm if these artifacts were cast using geopolymers, unless we examine a sample in a lab.

So, what do you think? Did ancient builders in India use geopolymers? Or were these carved on solid stone using simple tools?

Praveen Mohan

 

Ancient Scissor Knife (Katar) – Weird Weapons of India

 

Hey guys, today we are going to look at an ancient Indian weapon called Katar . There are many interesting details about the origin and types of Katar. I met this gentleman called Jayesh Kumar Pandian who is a collector of antique weapons and he has an extraordinary collection of these Katars. The word Katar actually comes from Tamil language kattari, which means a dagger or a push knife.

These daggers are short and cannot be used for slashing, but they were used for stabbing people. One good thrust will send the dagger through the body and the edge will come out through the other end.  The main difference between most daggers and the Indian Katar is the H-shaped horizontal hand grip. When you hold this, you clench your fist as though you are ready to punch someone, and you make the exact motion like punching somebody. This design allows the fighter to put his whole weight into a thrust, and you can target the head or the upper body of the enemy. Since it is light and small, It is more like an extension of the fist than a dagger, and it seems more natural to attack and defend with a Katar.

A very interesting modification was made in later stages and this fancy weapon is called a Scissor Kattar.  You can see that that the blade is forked into two blades. And the hand grip has a lever, and when you  press the lever, the blades open up and there is a smaller blade inside. The idea is to stab someone and then when you press the lever, the blades will open up and tear the internal organs. But there was another deadly practice – on the tip of the inside blade, poison was smeared. So, when the Katar went inside someone’s body and the outer blades opened, the inner blade would come in direct contact with blood vessels and other organs, and, the poison would mix directly with the blood.

Remember, we are using an antique Kattar, which is at least a 100 years old. Imagine the damage a new weapon can create. Royal Katars were richly engraved and some even have gemstones placed on them. This one has tigers engraved on it, and even on the sides you can see this tiger chasing a deer. These figures have gold inlays on them. Now, some people claim that Katars were not native to India and were brought in during the last few centuries. Is this fabulous weapon really an ancient invention,  or was it just created a few centuries ago? To find the answer to this question, let us go to the ancient Srirangam temple, which is older than 2000 years. Here we can see ancient Indians using the Kattar in multiple sculptures.

It is quite fascinating to see that the design and stabbing style is still identical to what we see today. Some carvings even show the Kattar going into a man’s body and the edge coming out on the other side. Here, we can even see a fighting style which is focused on fighting with a pair of Katar, one in each hand. So, yes Kattar is in fact , an ancient weapon developed by Tamil people. There is an interesting story about how Katars were created. When the blades of long swords got broken, instead of throwing away the blade, they were modified and reused as Katars. Soldiers began using them as backup weapons.  The main advantage of a Katar is how it covers your knuckles and the wrist. The long handles on either side cover your hands and will protect them. There is a better version of this called the Patta Kattar or a Hooded Katar, which completely covers your hand. There is also another type called the Snake Kattar which has a curved, snake like  blade. Katars made of wood, were used during practice and training sessions.

Praveen Mohan

 

 

Isurumuniya Cave – Ancient ULTRASONIC GATEWAY Found in Sri Lanka?

 

Hey guys, I am at the Isurumuniya temple in Sri Lanka, and it is a fascinating site with many beautiful statues, but there is an ancient structure which defies all explanation. This is a cave or a den like structure which is considered sacred by locals and if you visit this place, there are 2 reasons you will feel really weird about this. One, is the thousands of bats which are tightly packed inside and you don’t understand why you see such a large number of bats here. But there is another question which will run through your subconscious mind. Why do you see these bats in such a bright place? We never see bats in broad daylight. Actually bats don’t like light, their eyes are not adapted to this condition, in fact bats go so far to avoid flying on Full Moon nights because even that much light is too bright for them. So why do bats tolerate this well-lit area and hang around this place?

Locals believe that this den emits a magical sound which is not audible to human beings, but bats are mesmerized by this divine sound, which is why they stay here forever. This story seems like a fairy tale, but there is some strange coincidence between this folklore and modern scientific findings. Human beings can hear sounds only up to a frequency of 20 Khz and anything over 20Khz is called ultrasonic frequency and we are not capable of hearing such frequency. However, bats can hear ultrasonic frequencies up to 200 Khz.
Is it possible that this cave is emitting an ultrasonic frequency which attracts bats? How can a natural cave emit such a frequency?

Now, At first sight, we think this is a natural cave, but if you observe carefully we can see that it is not a natural structure at all. On the top, there is an arch neatly laid with stone slabs. You can see cubes cut out on the walls. There are several curvy lines carved all over the walls. And if we look carefully on the other side, and we can see small stone slabs placed on top of each other. According to legend, there is an ancient device concealed behind the stone wall which emits a magical sound capable of mesmerizing these bats. Is such a device possible? Scientists have recently discovered that it is in fact possible to make bats come to your location by emitting specific ultrasonic frequencies.
Bats do get attracted to these frequencies and will approach the source. What we see in the movie “Batman” is based on fact – so today, we do have such ultrasonic devices.

We know that this is not a natural cave. So, did ancient builders create some kind of ultrasonic device which is still hidden behind the wall, and if so, what does it look like?
Perhaps the device would looks like this strange carving, which is located less than half a mile away. This figure looks like a circuit diagram with complex symbols carved all over it. There is also a wave which looks remarkably similar to a sound wave. Is it possible that an actual device like this lays buried in the walls of the bat cave? This carving is known as ‘The Stargate of Sri Lanka’ and is considered as a device that can transport us to different planets.

What is even stranger is that, there is yet another similar cave nearby, popularly known as the Yoni. This Yoni is also considered a worm hole which can be activated using sound. Some people even claim that this a sonic boom tunnel. Again, it also looks like a natural cave, but it is not. On top, look at the rectangular slabs – they have been placed between the two large boulders. Let us go inside this cave, and we can see how neatly the stone slabs have been arranged. What were ancient builders trying to do? On the walls, we can see cubes cut out and we can also see long, deep cuts, just like the bat cave. Locals believe that there was a similar sound device placed here as well, which was destroyed many centuries ago. May be this is why there are no bats here.

On top of the granite blocks, we can see remnants of a brick structure. Today, we can see light shining from the other side, but perhaps it originally had a brick wall at the end, which had an ultrasonic device. These broken brick blocks strewn around may have been part of that wall. So what do you think? Did ultrasonic portals exist in ancient times? How else can we explain the strange behavior of bats, the advanced technical drawing of the Stargate, and the beautiful Yoni cave?

Praveen Mohan

World’s Largest Stone Tablet Reveals Advanced Ancient Technology – Gal Potha, Sri Lanka

Hey guys, I am in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka, and here we can see this gigantic stone artifact, it is nearly 27 feet long, four and a half feet wide and is made of one solid block of granite. There are many fascinating details about this, and archeologists in Sri Lanka have not fully studied its secrets. To start with, this is the largest, freestanding stone tablet in the world. It has 4300 characters written on it, most of which are still readable today even though it was created 800 years ago.  The original name of this is not known, but is referred to as “Gal Potha” which means a “Stone Book”. A few years ago, experts analyzed this rock and found something extraordinary. They found small traces of metal inside many of these inscribed letters and realized that molten metal was poured over this block. However, archeologists have no idea why this was done. Why would ancient builders create a large stone block with inscriptions and then pour molten metal over it? Today, we are going to find the answer to this question.

To understand this, I decided to make a small scale model of what the ancient builders would have done. Imagine that this red wooden block is the large granite rock. Now, I am punching my name on the face of the wooden block – this is similar to the inscriptions on the stone. After finishing the inscription, ancient workers poured molten metal over it, which would have solidified after some time. I decided to pour silicone paste on top of the writings and let’s just wait for it to solidify. Now, archeologists have no idea why molten metal was poured on top of it, but ancient builders must have clearly had a good reason to melt metal and pour on top of the rock. After a few hours, the silicone paste has solidified and now, what should  I do with this?

My natural instinct is to use some force and separate the silicone from the block. And when I looked at the face of the solidified silicone, I can see the mirror image of my name, at a raised level. This is really fantastic, this is what the ancient builders would have done. The next step would be to put some kind of ink on top of this and we can take any cloth and look at this, when I press the two together, I am able to print my name. Now, I can use this solidified silicone like a rubber stamp  to print any number of times, today this technology is called block printing. We still use this on clothes. But you can see that ancient builders were using this printing technique at least 800 years ago. After pouring molten metal on the rock and waiting for it to solidify, they would have taken the metal plate out and used it as a stamp and printed enormous number of posters, banners etc and posted it around the city.

But this raises an important question, what is the need to create the inscription on the rock, why not just create the embossed stamp on the metal directly? Because, the stone tablet was created as a master template with which many stamps or dies can be created. Using the stone tablet, many metal dies would have been created by repeatedly pouring molten metal and then taking the solidified plates out. These metal plates would have been transported to various parts of Sri Lanka, and people would have then used large cloths as banners and created thousands of banners and would have placed them in nooks and corners. This centralized template system eliminates the possibility of spelling mistakes and grammatical errors that can creep in, if individual metal plates were created separately.

Today governments use printers and are able to create a large number of propaganda material and post them to the nook and corner to influence or even brainwash people. What does the ancient inscription contain? It also contains 800 year old government propaganda, if you look at what is written on it, it explains how the King must be respected and protected at all cost, it also warns people if they go against the king or reveal his secrets they would be dead. It establishes a strict set of rules to be followed by everyone in his kingdom, this is why he created a centralized template which could be used in various parts of Sri Lanka.

So, archeologists are wrong in thinking that this is just an inscription for visitors to read. And they are also wrong about something much more important. They haven’t analyzed the traces of molten metal on top of the rock, and have simply assumed that this metal is iron. This is impossible, because the melting point of iron is much higher than that of granite. If I pour molten iron on top of granite, the granite would actually melt and deform. The builders did not use iron, they used an alloy called Ayas mentioned in the ancient Hindu text called the Rig Veda.

And you may think: This is Sri lanka, not India, and this was created by a Buddhist king, not a follower of Hinduism. The truth is, Buddhists were actually Hindus, all these separations were created after European invasion. This is not just a theory, because yes this was created by a  Buddhist king, but we can clearly see the Hindu Goddess Lakshmi carved on both sides of the tablet. This is called Gajalakshmi where the Goddess is being flanked by elephants on both sides. And in ancient Hindu temples in India, we can see carvings of Lord Buddha. So the idea that Buddhism was a totally separate religion did not exist in ancient times.

So you can see how ancient builders were using extraordinary printing technology, they first cut a large granite stone block which is 27 feet tall, carefully wrote on it, and then created the alloy Ayas and poured it on top of the rock. They created metal stamps and sent them to various parts of the island and then printed thousands of identical banners all across the country and placed them everywhere.

Praveen Mohan

Se7en Stages of Defense at Sigiriya, Sri Lanka – Part I

Hey guys, today we are going to take a look at this giant rock called Sigiriya. On top of the rock, there are mysterious ancient ruins which have not been fully explained by archeologists. How did ancient builders create such extraordinary structures on top of a rock, which is 660 feet tall? But there is an even more important question: Why did anyone choose to build these structures on an impossible location? All experts agree that construction on such an isolated, inaccessible location means there was something verysecretive going on here. Whoever built this, clearly did not want anyone to come upeasily and find out what is going on.

In a previous video, we saw what was on top of the rock – in this video, we are going to see 7 stages of obstacles created by ancient builders to prevent enemies from reaching the top of the rock. Today, when we say Sigiriya we usually mean this giant rock, but Sigiriya actually stands for the entire ancient complex which consists of many lines of defense.The very first, outermost obstacle you face when entering the Sigiriya complex is the water gardens. This actually looks like a welcoming place and looks beautiful, and archeologists have named this as water gardens, but the truth is, this entire set up was designed to kill and destroy people who entered without permission. If you look at the ancient plan of Sigiriya, it is almost completely covered on all sides with water, like a fort with a moat, everything you see in blue is water.

In fact, even today, we enter Sigiriya only through bridges to cross over the moat. Of course, outside the moat, there is another line of defense, it is actually the first line of defense which is the brick wall. If you look at the aerial view of Sigiriya, we realize that an enormous outer wall, a rampart has been built for protection. I am not going into explain this wall because I have not studied it fully.

Now, going back to the Water gardens:  the water gardens, utilizes a very complex ancient hydraulic system. The water gardens can be flooded at will by manipulating the system, and even today, we can flood the water levels and completely stop everyone from entering this place. When you enter Sigiriya complex, you will see a series of tanks, brick walls, and strange constructions which look like a bunch of random structures which don’t make any sense. But when I went to the top of the rock, and then looked at the bigger picture, it is astounding because the area looks like a circuit board, built by the gods. There are 4 tanks, 2 on each side of the walk way. And there are four fountains symmetrically built, 2 on each side. These fountains still work today.  These fountains are connected to the moat.

Using the principle of gravity and pressure, water is pushed from the moat,  into the fountains, through underground channels. This will activate the fountains which will in turn fill the tanks, and these tanks are all interconnected at the base, so there will be uniform water level in all 4 tanks.  This snake like structure was also created to control the movement of water, water cannot flow straight, and will have varying speeds at different points because of the curves. Notice how everything is connected, and this is just a very small part of the water gardens, so you can imagine the complexity of this entire system.

Now, how did ancient builders flood this entire area? There are massive water tanks created all around Sigiriya complex and most of them are at an elevated position. There is a large artificial lake to the South of the Rock called Vava, which is connected to the moat and the fountains, and water can be released from it, at will. This will cause the moat’s water level to rise and cause flooding all around Sigiriya. We can also flood specific areas, without affecting the other areas, we can specifically flood this entrance alone.

If we push some small obstructions through the conduits to the water fountains, the fountains will not be able to close, and will continue to keep releasing water, and will flood the entrance. If we explore the ground level, we can see many tanks which collect rain water, and  they have conduits which can be opened for flooding the area. And each tank is different and has some extraordinary feature. Remember, in Sigiriya, ancient builders used nature as a part of their construction. Look at this octagonal tank with 8 sides, 6 sides have been built by placing rocks artificially, but 2 sides are actually made of natural rocks in their original position.

Releasing water from these tanks will result in slow and steady flooding, since the speed of water flow depends on elevation. The higher the tank, the faster the water will flow. So, the most important tanks are located on top of the Sigiriya rock, which are capable of holding enormous amount of water. There are at least 3 large tanks and several smaller ones on top of the rock. On the rock face, we can see these ancient channels carved for routing the water from the tanks to the ground level. In the center of this large tank, we can see something that is called the “Stairs to Nowhere”.

There are stairs which come out of the pool and lead to a chair, all cut out in granite, and no one knows why this seat is carved. What is the purpose of this seat? If you sit on the chair, it gives a view of the entire area and you can spot an army marching hundreds of miles away, and then all you have to do is  get in and open the drain to this massive tank, which will act as a signal to open all the other tanks and will flood the entire ground level in a matter of hours.

Now, what happens when the entire ground level gets flooded?  Human beings are capable of swimming, and if the attacking army is a cavalry, even horses swim very well, so both humans and horses can get through by swimming. However, the movement would be very slow, compared to how horsemen can march on the ground. When water floods, the crocodiles will emerge to the ground level. If anyone tries to swim, they will be torn apart by crocodiles which live in the moat. This is not just a theory, the crocs actually still live here today, and we see a dozen different sign boards warning us not to get into the water, because of crocodiles. Experts have not understood that the entire set up was created as a defense mechanism, and have been trying to explain the water gardens as a thing of beauty. But they are scratching their heads about some tanks which make absolutely no sense at all.

In random places, ancient builders have created tanks which are only few inches deep. They are very shallow, and their bases have been laid with polished marble and shiny stones. Experts have no idea why these were built, but these were built as defense mechanisms. These shallow tanks will appear as deep pools and confuse the enemies, it is a sort of a psychological warfare. The shiny rocks and marble were placed in, so they will reflect the sky and appear as though they are deep, and the enemy will definitely stumble, because some tanks, in this area, are really deep, and some tanks like these are actually shallow.

This is actually clearly explained in the Indian Epic Mahabharata, where a palace is built with deep and shallow pools side by side and makes the antagonist stumble and fall. The most interesting correlation is that the epic states that this palace was built by Mayasura, who is the Father-In-Law of King Ravana. And Sigiriya is more popularly known as Ravana’s Palace, and Sri Lankans believe he used Sigiriya Rock as a Fort or Palace.

Now, if enemies successfully passed through the first barrier, which is water, they would encounter something known as ‘Rock Gardens’ or ‘Boulder Gardens’ . This is the second level of defense system, a stone defense system. Here, ancient builders have made a brilliant blend of natural setting combined with artificial structures. The landscape design in this stage is completely in contrast to the symmetry and geometry of the firststage. The first stage has a lot of symmetrical structures, but this stage is full of random clusters of boulders. And these rocks appear to naturally make way for us, and you can see stairs have been built to go through them. The idea behind this defense system is this: These arches are so narrow that  only two people can walk through them at any given time. Even if you had an army of millions, you can only march in pairs through here, and you can be killed off easily.There are several pairs of rocks which are set up strategically, and I am not sure if they were already here naturally, or if they were put in place artificially.

Ancient builders definitely worked on them, here you can see the faces have been shaved off. Archeology reports tell me these are drip ledges, to prevent water from touching the rock face. All drip ledges are built to prevent water from touching what’s below them. But what is the need to protect the rock face? It doesn’t have a trace of painting, inscriptions or anything on it. And all these rocks have tool marks on them, which nobody has been able to explain. Is it possible, that these huge rocks were actually cut artificially and transported to this place and made into arches? I definitely think so, because otherwise there is no need for tool marks, shavings and I doubt if such a large number of rocks could occur naturally, in pairs, for ancient builders to construct stairs through them.

Even though archeologists believe Sigiriya was built during the 5th century, which is about 1500 years ago, they have examined the rock barriers set up all around this level. There are at least 30 different caves in this area, and excavation done at a cave called “Ahgala” revealed that people were living here 6,000 years ago. This has baffled experts and some are of the opinion that Sigiriya is the oldest surviving monument in Sri Lanka, which predates all historical records in the country. Now,  there are some rocks which are much more fascinating than these stone arches. All around Sigiriya, at high altitudes, there are strange, elongated, massive rocks placed at an angle.

For example, if we look at this rock, it at least 30 feet long and 15 feet tall and weighs a minimum of 1,000 tons.  Note how it has been placed on a slope using these small cylindrical rocks for balancing, there is no way this a natural occurrence. Ancient builders definitely cut this rock from the bottom half, lifted it up, and then placed small cylindrical rocks between them. These bizarre setups are called prison rocks, because locals imagine that people can be put through the crack, and will appear as though they are behind bars.

Sigiriya has several Prison Rocks set up all around it, but the question is why did ancient builders create these weird structures? Because, if enemies came past the water barrier and managed to get through the stone arches, these Prison Rocks can be easily moved out of their positions with minimal amount of force. All prison rocks are at an elevated level, so these massive rocks will drop from a height, and cause other rocks to drop as well, causing an avalanche effect, which will fall on the enemies and completely destroy them .  Ancient builders have clearly understood the concept of center of balance. Notice how, there are smaller stones placed on top of the rock, this was definitely done to alter its natural center of gravity.

These small stones, the angle at which the slope is made, the 30 degree angle at which these cylindrical stones are set up, were all done to make sure that the rock can be easily pushed down with just a little bit of force.  In fact, the archeology department understands that these rocks can be easily pushed down by tourists, which is why they have added these sand bags to make them immovable. Of course, the real question is how did ancient builders cut such a massive rock, and lift more than 1000 tons? How did they balance it on a slope with these stone bars, and how did they manage to balance these small stones at a 30 degree angle?

How did they calculate the center of gravity? Where did they test all these things? Today, it would be impossible to set this up  without heavy machinery and precise instruments.  And I have spoken only about 2 stages of defense, but as far as I know, I have never seen such an elaborate design created to protect any ancient site. I will talk about the other stages of defense in a different video.

Praveen Mohan

1700 Year Old ‘Negative Lingam’ – Secret Sankara Stones Inside?

Hey guys, here is a very strange structure in Sri Lanka, which looks like a massive key hole and has many weird stories attached to it. Archeologists estimate it was built around 300 A.D, so it is at least 1700 years old, but it could be much older than that. While experts argue that it is just a water well, locals point out to the strange features of this well. When you look at it from the top, it definitely feels different from any other structure you have ever seen.

Locals call this a ‘ negative lingam’. I have shown you many lingams in my channel, it is a cylindrical structure set up on a circular base with a projection at one end and represents Lord Shiva. But what is a ‘Negative Lingam’? If we take a lingam and imagine everything that is solid is empty, and everything that is empty is solid, we would get a negative lingam. The easiest way to understand this is to think of casting metal objects. Imagine how the hollow cast would look, if we want to make a cylinder. If we fill this entire structure with clay, and then pull out the clay after it dries up, it would be a perfect lingam. So technically we should call this the Inverse Lingam or the Female of a Lingam, but locals refer to this a Negative Lingam.

While a lingam is considered a source of energy, this one, the negative lingam is said to absorb all energy, similar to a black hole. This is actually referred to as a ‘Yoni’ in ancient Sanskrit Texts, and the Yoni is capable of holding any number of lingams and yonis inside of it. It is said that Ravana, a great ruler of Sri Lanka, built this and created a secret chamber which is buried deep underneath. He hid a crystal lingam inside this chamber, and this crystal is said to act as a receiver of energy.

In a previous video I showed you how an ancient Stupa in Sri Lanka also uses crystal to receive such signals. People who live here, insist that director Steven Spielberg took the story of this crystal lingam and made up the concept of ‘Sankara Stones’. There is no way to confirm if Spielberg actually visited this particular place, but he shot this movie, “Temple of Doom” in Sri Lanka. So, there is a very good chance that the glowing Sankara Stones were inspired by this crystal lingam which is supposed to be buried inside. And I am told that there are 7 such negative lingams placed all over this city and each one contains a crystal lingam buried inside.

But why did ancient builders create 7 inverse Lingams, and why did they put a ‘Sankara Stone’ inside each one? Nobody knows the answer to this, but there is a strange connection between this structure, and the stargate I showed you in a previous video. The stargate is just 2 miles away from the negative lingam we saw. In the center of this stargate, we can see 7 concentric circles. Is this a coincidence, or is this indicating the use of 7 negative lingams? This negative lingam itself contains exactly 7 concentric circles, if you look at it from the top, you will see it as 7 concentric circles. There are also lingam like figures carved on the stargate itself. Perhaps, we can get some real answers if we dive inside, and get a hold of these crystal lingams, may be they have inscriptions, or the buried chambers may even contain maps or detailed explanations on what all these things really mean.

Praveen Mohan