Oldest Weapon in the World? Madu / Maduvu – Capable of Attack and Defense

Hey guys, today we are going to look at an ancient Indian weapon called Madu. Most ancient weapons like swords or knives are used for attacking, and some devices like shields are used for defending, but this weapon is unique because it combines both attack and defense. This is a very effective melee weapon. Now, what’s a melee? We usually think of battles as an organized fight between 2 sides which have these perfect formations, however when the actual fighting begins, all hell breaks loose, and you are engaged in close combat fighting with many people at a time. This kind of confused fight in close combat is called a melee. So, in an actual fight like this, it is wise to have one weapon you can use for both attacking and defending. Better yet, you can parry a thrust from one enemy, and kill another enemy using this same weapon. Even if you lose your sword in a fight, the Madu will be a very effective weapon for attack and defense. Because if you lose your sword and are just holding a shield, you cannot attack your enemy. In India, soldiers preferred the Maduvu instead of a regular shield.

So what is a Madu made of? A Madu typically consists of two antelope horns pointing in opposite directions. Specifically, the horns of an Indian antelope known as black buck were used to make Madus. These black bucks have the strangest shape of horns.. they are spiral and they also have ridges. I mean you can see right away that the horns of this animal are quite deadly, they can pierce through your body and cause a very deep wound. And these 2 horns are connected at the center by 2 cross bars which are also used as handles. If you look carefully, the crossbars extend beyond the horns and on one side it actually connects to a shield. And on the front side, you can see these dots, and on the other side, we can see how the cross bars are set up so they won’t come out. These Madus you are looking at are original antique pieces which are a few hundred years old, collected by my friend Jayesh. It is really interesting to see Islamic symbols like the crescent placed on top of these shields.

When Arabs and Mongols came to India, they were fascinated by the efficiency of Madu, so they immediately started using them. They employed other animals like cheetah to hunt the black buck and then used the horns to make Madu. The shields were mostly made out of metal, but this shield is made of leather. In the Middle East, this weapon is referred to as “Fakir Horns”. Some even tried to enhance the Madus , they began making Madus which are entirely made of metal, you can see this is completely made of metal. While original madus simply used the horns natural sharpness, some made it even more deadly, pointy metal caps were added to the tips of the horns to make them stronger and sharper.

Now, let’s go into the origin of this weapon. This weapon originated in South India, the word Maduvu means “a device that causes a deep hole” in Tamil language, and you can see why it has been named this way, it does put a deep hole through the body of the enemy. There is a simpler form of this weapon which is not only considered the original form of Madu, but also the oldest weapon in the world. This weapon does not have a shield at all and is just made of 2 horns and a fastener which holds them together.
If you think about it, it could be one of the oldest weapons in the world because unlike most ancient weapons which use metal, this is made entirely out of animal horns. This weapon could be made with no technology, no tools are needed, and no shaping or processing is required, we can just tie two antelope horns together and use it. So when a deer or antelope dies, all they had to do was pull out the horns and just use them as weapons. In essence, this is a weapon from nature itself, and primitive men must have started using this first because it does not need any other tools. Most other weapons like swords must have come much later, because you would need to mine or extract metals from the earth to make swords or daggers. And no sharpening tools are required either, because the horns are naturally very sharp.

This is still used today as a weapon in South India, there are elaborate training sessions dedicated to Madu fighting alone. In fact a person trained in this, can successfully defend and defeat an enemy who uses a much longer weapon, like a stick or a sword. This weapon also has the advantage of being compact and we can carry this secretly, and then surprise your enemy by pulling it out. Today’s double bladed daggers with a center handle are actually inspired by this type of Madu.

Praveen Mohan


Scariest Ancient Weapon Ever? Man Catcher aka Sasumata


Hey guys, today we are going to look at this unique and weird ancient weapon. This is called the Man Catcher and the weapon originated in India in ancient times and we will get to that later. But you can immediately begin to see why this is called the Man-Catcher. Imagine this tree trunk is somebody’s neck. You would thrust this weapon on to a person’s neck and it would just slide in. But when the victim tries to pull free, he cannot get out of it. The man catcher is a unique weapon because its primary purpose is to catch or restrain an individual, and not to kill him. So, we can call this a tool, because it is not really a weapon, used for killing somebody. Technically, You use this tool and not fight with it.

The man catcher, the iron part is actually small, just about one foot long, but it will be typically mounted on a long pole and the design is very interesting. They have 2 flap like structures which are attached to 2 more tensile spring like curves. So when you force it on a man’s neck, the flaps will give way and you can move it forward and catch him. However, the flaps will not move out, so it acts like a one way valve. You need at least 2 people to release it, so there is no way for a man to escape this, by himself. And look at these spikes all around , it will make sure that the victim cannot try to run away and he can’t even move rapidly, because the spikes would hurt him.

This particular man catcher is actually about 200 years old and was used by British. This is an antique artifact and my friend Jayesh has an extraordinary collection of all types of antiques, and has a countless number of ancient weapons. It is said that these man-catchers were used in British India to control Violent criminals. Of course, there are much simpler models of this, some just have a u shaped structure on a pole.

So, why was the Man-Catcher invented? Isn’t easier to just use a knife or a sword against an enemy? The man-catcher was originally invented by Hindu saints of India who did not want to kill the attacker, but wanted to restrain them. Hindus believe that killing or hurting someone was a sin, even if that person was attacking you. But you also had to save your own life, and man-catcher is the perfect weapon for the job. So, the Hindu saints made it a custom to carry this tool and called it Dhandam or Dhanda. . This was the very first and the most simple man-catcher and was used at least 2000 years ago. If anyone came to attack them, the saints would restrain them using the man catcher.
It is said that about 1500 years ago, Bodhidharma, an Indian prince took this weapon to China and Japan, and used it to control lawless criminals. Bodhidharma is considered the founding father of Kung Fu and he introduced this weapon and called it Sasumata, which roughly means “Taken Alive” in Sanskrit language.

While Indians have completely forgotten about this ancient tool, the Japanese, Chinese and even Thai people are actively using the Man-Catcher today and they still call it Sasumata. They find it ideal for restraining an attacker without hurting him. Even if he has a knife, the man catcher has a long handle so you will have enough distance and it would be impossible for him to attack you. And even police officials are using this today and if you have a couple of people with these Sasumatas you can totally corner an attacker and completely subdue him.

Now we saw how the man catcher went from India to China and Japan 1500 years ago. Eventually, the Man-Catcher reached the Europeans, and they began using it in the medieval period. It became a very popular tool in Europe, and they were very creative in using this. For example, they used it to catch a person, a rich person and they would not release him, unless he paid them a ransom. In Europe, the man catcher was also called a “catchpole”.

Now the best use of this weapon was in defending a castle. When you are trying to breach a castle, you would eventually have your soldiers climb the walls of the castle using ladders. This was the classic move in castle warfare. Now, imagine you are the first person who has climbed on the ladder and when you are just over the castle wall, a person from inside the castle, uses the man-catcher on you. You will end up completely restrained. You may have an armor to protect you, and you may have a sword, but you can’t move away, you can’t attack the other person and you will be kicking and screaming on top of the ladder, and none of the other soldiers below you on the ladder can climb up. So man-catchers were very very effective in defending castles, all we need is a lot of soldiers with man catchers ready to use them on the attackers who come up using ladders. And the soldiers can catch these attackers using the Mancatcher and then just hold them in the same position and let them keep their feet on the ladder. So these man catchers will completely make these ladders useless.

Is this just my fancy theory? No, in fact, there is an excellent Castle in Austria called the Hochosterwitz castle. This was built more than a thousand years ago and is famous for its 14 gates and locals maintain that no enemy has gone beyond the 4th gate. Authorities confirm that they had a total of about 200 man catchers to defend the castle. Such a large number of man catchers proves that they were used to restrain enemies who tried to climb the walls using ladders.

Now, Even though the man catchers are fading away in real life, the really cool part is that today’s gamers have revived this weapon virtually. For example, It is used in the Warhammer game, by these rat people and the man catcher is used in very creative ways. Here you can see a person is caught using the Man catcher and this person is just raised up and it is sort of like, hanging him to death. The man catcher was also featured in one of the Assassin’s Creed movies. So it is becoming more and more popular in the United States.

In Russia, the man catcher was actually used as a bear catcher, to catch bears in real life. Until about a hundred years ago, Russian hunters took these for hunting, and used it to catch bears. Imagine catching a full size bear with nothing other than this weapon, that was considered as a great act of bravery in medieval Russia. So you can see how a simple, defensive tool created by Indian saints traveled all over the world and evolved into one of the most creative devices.

Praveen Mohan

5000 Year Old MAGIC Jar Unearthed in India? Defies Law of Gravity?

Hey guys, today we are going to look at an extraordinary artifact known as “Magic Krishna” , this is currently displayed at the Chennai Museum in India. This weird looking item is about 300 years old, and it looks like it is made of plastic, but is made completely out of clay. The specialty of this container is that, it defies the law of gravity and the laws of physics. Now, I am going to demonstrate how this jar defies the laws of nature. On the bottom, we can clearly see that there is a hole right at the center and if you pour water on the top, the water should normally drain through the bottom hole. However, when we pour water at the top, you can see that the water does not leak through the bottom hole. Instead, the water level slowly rises as you pour more water, and once the water touches the feet of this idol, the water somehow magically starts draining through the bottom hole.

But it does not stop, the entire water completely drains out of the container. This does not make any sense at all, this defies the laws of nature. Normally, when there is a hole at the bottom, the water should begin draining immediately as we pour water on the top. This will happen due to gravity, but this is an anti-gravity jar, so the water doesn’t come out through the hole. And here is the second problem: the water doesn’t drain even when we fill it halfway, and it appears as though it begins draining as we add more and more weight of water. If this is the case, the hole must stop draining as the water comes down to half level. We expect that only a certain amount of water would drain.
But somehow, when the water touches the idol’s feet, the water begins draining and it drains out everything completely. How does this happen? Is this some kind of a magic jar? Is this why it is safely kept behind glass doors in a Museum? Yes, it is in fact a Magic Jar, and this is the idol of Lord Krishna, a Magical Indian God. Archeologists confirm that this is a rare artifact, and only one such container exists in all of India.

In ancient times, magic jars like these were used in many temples and an interesting story was told while giving a demonstration and I am going to tell you that story now. About 5000 years ago, Lord Krishna was born, and his uncle wanted to kill him immediately. So in an attempt to save his life, baby Krishna was secretly taken away by his father, who decided to carry him across the river Yamuna. As his father was crossing the river, the water level began rising. His Father begged the river to subside, but the water level kept on rising. But when the river Yamuna finally touched Lord Krishna’s feet, it completely drained out and became dry, so the Father and Son could cross the river safely. The river Yamuna later revealed that it wanted to desperately touch Lord Krishna’s feet and get his blessings. So, this is why the water level keeps rising until it touches Krishna’s feet and once it touches his feet, everything will drain out.

So, how does it really work? I decided to recreate this magic jar and here you can see that I have built a rectangular tank and at the bottom, there is a hole. On the top, I have built a similar cylindrical structure and I have glued an idol of Lord Krishna, hoping that the water will behave similarly. And as I keep pouring water, the water does not drain through the bottom hole, because water naturally wants to touch Krishna’s feet but watch carefully when the water touches Lord Krishna’s feet, all the water begins magically draining out, leaving the container empty. Now, the key to this is hidden underneath this cylinder, it does not have a complex valve system or anything like that, all we need is a U-tube or a U-bend set up inside the container. One of the bends fits into the hole , and the other leg is set up very close to the floor of the tank. Now, if I pour water, nothing happens until the water touches the bend, water will not drain through the bottom hole. But once that level is reached, which is where the Krishna’s feet would be strategically placed, the water will begin draining, but it won’t stop until everything gets completely drained out. Scientists call this a Siphon.

What you saw in the museum was only about 300 years old, but it is believed that the very first magic jar with the same principle was created at the time of Krishna, who lived about 5000 years ago. Ancient India is known for making these anti-gravity or magic containers – in a previous video I showed you another jar which defies the law of gravity, it is known as Karigiri Jar. It does not have a mouth but it has holes on both top and bottom, but the water does not come out through the top or bottom holes, you can only get the water out through the designated spout.

In the western world, a container similar to the ‘Magic Krishna’ was designed about 2500 years ago, by Pythagoras. Yes, this is the same Pythagoras, the guy who proved that the sum of the squares of 2 sides is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. This is called a Pythagoras Cup. I have made a simple model of this using a plastic cup and a straw. He used these cups to tell a completely different story. Pythagoras would give these empty cups to his friends and they could all pour wine and drink from these cups. However, if someone got too greedy and decided to completely fill the cup, the entire cup would become empty. So, the moral of the Pythagoras’s cup was not to be greedy, and always try to keep a fair share and not get too much. If you try to get everything, you will end up getting nothing. And you can also simply rename this as Magic Krishna as well, if we conceal the straw and place an idol of Krishna here, it will not drain the liquid until it reaches a certain height… And once it reaches a certain height, which would be the same spot where Krishna’s feet would be set up, all the liquid will drain out completely.
I have heard a slightly different Hindu Story, which will give you a different result in the Magic Krishna jar. While river Yamuna is considered a devotee of Lord Krishna, the river Ganga is said to be a devotee of Lord Shiva. And Yamuna is represented by water, but Ganga is actually represented by Mercury, liquid mercury. In Indian alchemy, mercury is considered as Lord Shiva’s body fluid. And if we mix Ganga and Yamuna in this container, will it still give us the same output? If I pour mercury and water side by side, can Krishna do his magic? Ganga is considered as the holiest river, and also has magical properties and Ganga only worships Shiva, and not Krishna. So, when we add Ganga or mercury along with Water, we can see that the ‘Magic Krishna’ does not work. Even though we have filled this container up, the mercury and water are not draining. Why?

Because Yamuna or Water does not have enough power to move Ganga or mercury, up the siphon. Of course Ganga is the heaviest of all rivers, I mean mercury is the heaviest of all liquids. And the only way to make this work with mercury is by adding pure mercury, all the way to the top. And of course, you can see how ancient Hindus were talking about science purely using symbolic names. It is very fascinating to see that ancient Indians understood the laws of physics, gravity and siphon and they always had a strange way of mixing religion and science. Remember I showed you the inverted shadow of a tower in a temple at Hampi, which is also based on laws of physics. India is full of these weird artifacts and carvings which use a combination of religion and science to create quote on quote “Magic”.

Praveen Mohan

Ancient Secret of Symbols Found in Palm-Leaf Manuscripts? Indian Writing System Revealed

Hey guys, today we are going to look at how ancient Indians wrote and preserved their sacred texts. Around the world, there have been many different writing practices, the Egyptians were using Papyrus, Sumerians used clay tablets, but in India, Palm-Leaves were used. The earliest known palm leaf manuscript is about 2600 years old, and almost all ancient Indian texts were exclusively written on these palm leaves, and only a very small portion was written on metal plates and on stones as inscriptions. I have shown you several ancient stone inscriptions in my other videos, but in this video let us focus on Palm-Leaf Manuscripts. My friend Jayesh has a large collection of these manuscripts so let us take a closer look at them.

Here you can see palm leaves which date back several centuries and the question that immediately pops into your mind is this: How do palm leaves survive for this many centuries? Why are they not damaged by termites, dampness or by mere human touch? These palm leaves are carefully prepared from a specific type of palm called Borassus or Palmyra Palm. The young shoots are cut off from the tree and these shoots are boiled in water and then dried in shade for several days. After drying, the palm leaves would be polished using pumice stone. At this stage, the palm leaf would be ready for writing.

So what kind of pen and ink were used? This weird device was used for writing, and there is no ink involved. It looks very strange, but this instrument has a pointed stylus on one end and there is a knife on the other end. Did they use the knife as a weapon? No, they used it to cut the leaf into desired size. The pointy stylus did not dip into a pot of ink, but the stylus was pressed with sufficient pressure to imprint words, we can still use the same process and inscribe words on palm leaves . And we can read the words – this reads Palm Leaf. We do see some manuscripts which have used ink, writing with ink was practiced in Tibet, and in some other parts of ancient India, But the most popular writing process, was inscribing words on these leaves without ink.

And the question is WHY? Why did they not use ink, unlike other cultures? Because it is easy to erase, modify and tamper with original writings if ink is used. On the other hand, there is no way to change the contents of these palm leaves. This why ancient Indians preferred this method and I suspect that this is one of the key reasons why India still has so many ancient texts which have not been tampered with.

Now, back to the question of, how did these palm leaves survive for so many centuries? After writing on these palm leaves, they used a compound of turmeric and another herb to protect these leaves. This paste was thoroughly smeared on all sides, so it will not become damp or be attacked by insects. This is why we still have these manuscripts in excellent condition. These leaves will then be tied together using a string made of bamboo or coir.

Going back to the stylus, my friend collects antiques, and has collected so many different types of styluses. This is the simplest and perhaps the oldest one, it is just a sharp, nail like stylus. There are several ones made of ivory, ivory was very popular back then. Almost all of the ivory ones have knives included for cutting the leaves. The styluses from Sri Lanka have a stand at the bottom, so they can stand upright on tables. And we can see many other types of Styli made of bull horns, deer horns, wood and metal and some people also have the owner’s name carved on it as well, we can still read this today. Scribes typically use something called a sharpening stone, to sharpen their stylus periodically.

Most of these palm leaf manuscripts are written in ancient Tamil language, although some leaves written in Sanskrit language are also found from time to time. Today, Hindus have a strange habit, they make a mark on top of the page before beginning to write anything. In South India, this mark looks like the number 2 and an underline and two dots, but has no meaning and this symbol is known as ‘Pillayar Suzhi’. In the North, they use the letter Shri on top before writing anything. Today, many educated people laugh at this practice and point out that ancient Hindus were superstitious and began their writing with a prayer. Is this a meaningless superstition?

Let us go back in time, about a thousand years ago, imagine you are a scribe, and your job is to write on palm leaves. When you receive a fresh set of palm leaves, what would you do? Should you begin writing immediately? No, because halfway through your writing, you may realize that the palm leaf has not been properly processed and it can get torn when you inscribe a complicated letter with a stylus. So you have to test the leaves before writing anything. This is why you make this mark and use a circle, a curve and some lines to make sure the leaves have been properly processed to withstand the inscription. So, ancient Indians were actually quite pragmatic and were even clever enough to make this into a universal system across the nation.
Praveen Mohan

Ancient Kailasa Nathar Temple was NOT built with Stones? Advanced Technology Revealed!

Hey guys, today we are going to look at a very different technology used many centuries ago in India. This ancient site is known as Warangal Fort and it is a massive site which is completely in ruins now. You can see that it does not look like a fort at all, but this place is called a fort because there are many levels of fortifications and defense systems around this, but they have a much larger circumference, so we can’t see them from here. Today, let’s specifically look at how these rocks were cut. When you first enter the site, you are amazed at the thousands of rocks that are just strewn around like piles of garbage. When you examine these rocks closely, you are amazed because ..just see how complex each block is. How were the magnificent structures created? Archeologists and historians are adamant and claim that all these structures were built using nothing more than primitive tools and hard labor. Is this true? Or did ancient builders use advanced technology and high-tech machines to accomplish this feat?

Let us take a look at these stone artifacts. They have a strange Latticework done on them and are called as Jali in India. Each Jali Stone has many holes and looks like a ventilator or a window, but these are not straight slots or round holes. Each hole has many corners. But this is not the real problem, it is quite possible to carve a hole with many corners using simple tools. The problem is, all these multi-cornered holes are perfectly identical to one another. Experts are shocked at how precisely identical their dimensions are, they are perfect down to the millimeter. If we observe carefully, these designs look as though they have been made using a mechanical device like a cookie cutter. Experts agree that such precision is not possible manually. Did ancient builders use some kind of a cookie cutter like device to make these type of structures? Geologists have not examined these structures fully, but they think most of these Jalis are made of black basalt, a very hard rock. Forget ancient technology, we still don’t have a cutting device which can cut identical shapes on hard rocks like black basalt. We would have to use a computer and CNC machines to create these identical slots. Did ancient builders use something like CNC machines? Or did they use some other technology?

But this identical design is not just limited to holes, they are also seen in other blocks. For example look at this series of Lions – there are many lions in this block, but if you observe them carefully, they look identical. Remember, this site was destroyed by the Sultan of Delhi for religious reasons, and historians confirm that these stones were lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years. But even after 700 years of erosion, corrosion and willful destruction, we can only see minor damages. Look at the three dimensional gaps between them. Is it manually possible to carve underneath these areas or were they using machines like engraving, carving and drilling machines?

Historians and archeologists vehemently argue that ancient builders did everything with chisels and hammers and did not use rotating machines, but this site provides some solid evidence that drilling machines were used in ancient times. Here we can see a perfectly drilled hole. Do these look like chisel marks? You can see these concentric circles caused by the flutes of a drill bit. Archeologists confirm that these are in fact ancient tool marks. This is how it looks after lying in rain and shine for at least 700 years and look at how perfect it looks. Imagine how it would have looked when it was created. So we know as a matter of fact that ancient builders were using rotating drilling and carving machines, but is this how these Jalis are made? Even with mechanized carving tools, it would still be impossible to make such identical holes. So, they must have used some other kind of technology to create these designs.

To understand this, we need to look at how Jalis are made today. In India, Jali making is not only considered an ancient art, but Jalis are still widely used in rural homes even today. So, how do they make these identical designs? The answer is quite simple, they don’t use hard substances like rocks, they use soft substances like clay or liquid cement and then cast them into identical pieces. For example, we can pour concrete or put wet cement into a cast and after it solidifies, it looks and feels as hard as a rock. Surprisingly, the Jali makers of India whose families have been working in this field for many centuries tell us that this is exactly the same process they have been doing for many centuries. Today, they are using concrete, but in ancient times they used some other powders or liquid material to create ancient Jalis.

Are these Jalis in Warangal Fort really made of black basalt? Or are they made of some other materials which merely look like black basalt? Today, we use materials called Geopolymers, and we use them to build various structures. The geopolymers are soft, powdery, and are even liquids and are made of the same material as rocks and can be cast into any desired size or complex designs. Once they solidify and harden, it will be impossible to tell the difference between geopolymers and regular rocks, unless you take a sample and examine its components. Some experts have claimed this is how the Pyramid of Giza was built – according to them, these huge stone blocks are not stone blocks at all, they are geopolymer blocks. If we visit any industry which creates Geopolymer blocks using casting, we can see large tanks being used for pouring, storing and periodic usage of geopolymer liquid. Is this why Warangal Fort has these gigantic tanks?

Perhaps these tanks were also used to store and use geopolymer liquid. Were ancient builders in India, using the same technology of pouring geopolymers and casting them into desired shapes? To understand this, we need to go to one of the oldest Temples in India. This temple called the Kailasanathar temple, is at least 1300 years old. Some historians believe that this South Indian Temple served as a model of the famous Kailasa Temple in Ellora Caves. While the Kailasa Temple in the North is known for its extraordinary Rock Cutting Technology, this temple in the South is famous for something very mysterious. The rocks which make up this temple are not rocks at all. According to locals in this town and the priest of this temple, these are geopolymer blocks.

Listen to what the priest says. These walls and statues in this temple show some strange details, they don’t show the properties of normal rocks. Archeologists insist that these are made of sandstone, however many of these statues and walls have become flaky, and are slowly peeling off – this is not how sandstone behaves. And we can see something much more startling – We can see bricks laid inside these statues, and covered with rock like coating. This is definitely a sign of geopolymers because if these blocks are made of solid sandstone, it would be impossible to place bricks inside. So ancient builders were definitely using geopolymers as liquids or powders and casting them into desired shapes.

But what’s really fascinating is the number of attempts by the archeology department to renovate this temple. The temple was in very good condition until 1910, when the Archeology Department, which was then under British control decided to apply plaster on the walls and carvings in the name of preservation. However, immediately after the application of Plaster, the structure began disintegrating rapidly. The components of the geopolymer must have had a chemical reaction with the plaster, so the temple walls started peeling off. The archeology department has tried unsuccessfully at least 5 times in the last century to somehow maintain the temple, but after the initial reaction in 1910, the temple never came back to its original state, it is actually declining every year. So, I think there is no doubt that ancient builders were using geopolymer technology and I think Kailasanathar temple and Warangal Fort structures clearly prove this beyond any doubt.

But the structures in Warangal fort have not disintegrated because they have not been tampered with artificial chemicals. And Warangal fort area has some fascinating evidence like the floating rocks. Remember I have already shown you in a previous video, how ancient builders were creating floating rocks. This rock is not a naturally occurring rock, these rocks were in fact molded and cast artificially. Today, we use the same technology and call them Autoclaved Aerated Concrete or AAC blocks. So, geopolymer technology was definitely available in ancient times, however we cannot confirm if these artifacts were cast using geopolymers, unless we examine a sample in a lab.

So, what do you think? Did ancient builders in India use geopolymers? Or were these carved on solid stone using simple tools?

Praveen Mohan


Ancient Scissor Knife (Katar) – Weird Weapons of India


Hey guys, today we are going to look at an ancient Indian weapon called Katar . There are many interesting details about the origin and types of Katar. I met this gentleman called Jayesh Kumar Pandian who is a collector of antique weapons and he has an extraordinary collection of these Katars. The word Katar actually comes from Tamil language kattari, which means a dagger or a push knife.

These daggers are short and cannot be used for slashing, but they were used for stabbing people. One good thrust will send the dagger through the body and the edge will come out through the other end.  The main difference between most daggers and the Indian Katar is the H-shaped horizontal hand grip. When you hold this, you clench your fist as though you are ready to punch someone, and you make the exact motion like punching somebody. This design allows the fighter to put his whole weight into a thrust, and you can target the head or the upper body of the enemy. Since it is light and small, It is more like an extension of the fist than a dagger, and it seems more natural to attack and defend with a Katar.

A very interesting modification was made in later stages and this fancy weapon is called a Scissor Kattar.  You can see that that the blade is forked into two blades. And the hand grip has a lever, and when you  press the lever, the blades open up and there is a smaller blade inside. The idea is to stab someone and then when you press the lever, the blades will open up and tear the internal organs. But there was another deadly practice – on the tip of the inside blade, poison was smeared. So, when the Katar went inside someone’s body and the outer blades opened, the inner blade would come in direct contact with blood vessels and other organs, and, the poison would mix directly with the blood.

Remember, we are using an antique Kattar, which is at least a 100 years old. Imagine the damage a new weapon can create. Royal Katars were richly engraved and some even have gemstones placed on them. This one has tigers engraved on it, and even on the sides you can see this tiger chasing a deer. These figures have gold inlays on them. Now, some people claim that Katars were not native to India and were brought in during the last few centuries. Is this fabulous weapon really an ancient invention,  or was it just created a few centuries ago? To find the answer to this question, let us go to the ancient Srirangam temple, which is older than 2000 years. Here we can see ancient Indians using the Kattar in multiple sculptures.

It is quite fascinating to see that the design and stabbing style is still identical to what we see today. Some carvings even show the Kattar going into a man’s body and the edge coming out on the other side. Here, we can even see a fighting style which is focused on fighting with a pair of Katar, one in each hand. So, yes Kattar is in fact , an ancient weapon developed by Tamil people. There is an interesting story about how Katars were created. When the blades of long swords got broken, instead of throwing away the blade, they were modified and reused as Katars. Soldiers began using them as backup weapons.  The main advantage of a Katar is how it covers your knuckles and the wrist. The long handles on either side cover your hands and will protect them. There is a better version of this called the Patta Kattar or a Hooded Katar, which completely covers your hand. There is also another type called the Snake Kattar which has a curved, snake like  blade. Katars made of wood, were used during practice and training sessions.

Praveen Mohan



2000 Year Old Anti-Gravity Jar Found in India? SECRET REVEALED


Hey guys, today we are going to look at a very strange object, a jar which has magical properties. This anti-gravity jar is at least 300 years old and is displayed at the Museum of Kancheepuram in India. It looks like it has been made of wax, but it is made completely out of clay. It does not have a lid anywhere, so how do we use it? On the top it has holes, but you cannot pour water through these top holes. The only way to pour water is to hold the jar upside down, and you can see 5 holes at the bottom, and you can pour water through these holes. Now, you can see the water disappearing, but if you put the jar in an upright position, the water does not drain through the bottom holes. This is why it is called the Anti-Gravity jar. Now, notice that if the jar is kept upside down, the water is also not draining through the top holes. How did the water magically disappear? Where did the water go? The only way to get the water back is by using the spout, all the water we added through the bottom can be retrieved only through the spout.
This jar is about 300 years old, but similar jars were used even 2000 years ago in India. What kind of technology was used many centuries ago, to create this magical effect? Remember, this jar is made of clay, so there is no way to put a rubber stopper or a cork inside, because when you bake this clay jar in a furnace or kiln, the rubber or cork would have turned into ashes. Also, if you shake it, there is nothing moving inside, it has no moving parts at all.
This jar proves that real magic and supernatural abilities existed in ancient times, this is why the jar defies the law of Gravity. Things like this exist – I have even shown you a supernatural road that defies gravity in the U S. If you drop a ball in this anti-gravity road, the ball will roll up hill, against the law of gravity.
Now, let’s see how this magic jar was really made. I have built the same model here, but I have made it on a transparent container, so you can see how it works. On the bottom of this jar, I have placed a funnel in an inverted position, and I have attached a 90 degree bend at the end of the nozzle here. So, when I invert the Jar, and pour water through these holes, the water goes through the funnel, but does not stay there and gets released into the jar. But when I put the jar back in the upright position, the water cannot get back into the funnel. The water stays around the funnel and comes back out only through the spout. This is exactly how the 300 year old Magic Jar works. Or is it?
We have conveniently forgotten that the anti-gravity Jar had holes on the top as well. So, if I make holes on the top of this container, will that complete the model? No, it actually ruins everything because if I fill water through the bottom holes, the water will drain through the top holes. Remember, the original Jar did not leak through the top holes, when it was being filled from the bottom. So, I had to add another funnel at the top with a 90 degree bend to complete the model. And now, if I pour water through the bottom holes, it will not hit the top holes, and will remain in the main chamber and can be poured out only through the spout.

So you can see how complicated this design actually is. And why were these holes made at the top of the magic jar? Just to confuse us? No, remember this jar has no lid, without these holes, there would be no air circulation inside the jar. If someone left it with water inside, the water will have no room for evaporation without these holes, so the top holes are absolutely necessary. It shows how clever people were many centuries ago. Now, everything I have used is plastic and I am able to glue the pieces together, and I can also open the container and make changes. But the original Jar is one piece and is completely made of clay. When you bake a clay model like this in a furnace or a Kiln, the clay will expand and will get deformed. Any slight change or just one crack inside will completely ruin the magic effect of the jar. And you can see how the jar has a shiny green glazed appearance. This color and shine has remained intact even after repeatedly using it for 300 years. Who made these amazing jars and why?
These jars were made in a small village called Karigiri, this is why these jars are known as Karigiri Jars. Potters in this village, designed many ingenious clay objects which baffled general public. Many centuries ago, Karigiri was the center of these “magic” items. It is said that they built about a 100 different magic containers and each one gave a different effect. Today, these clay jars are no longer made in that village and are displayed in Museums. Out of 100 different types of magic containers, only half a dozen exist today.

The most interesting jar was called the Akshaya Patra, a jar that never runs out of liquid. This is a metal replica of that jar. If you pour a small glass of water into this jar – This jar magically turns it into wine, and Let me empty this completely. But this jar is inexhaustible, this is what the term “Akshaya Patra” means, it has a never ending supply inside. In Greek Mythology, there is an inexhaustible vessel called ‘Cornucopia”, which can never become empty. This jar is the real deal, now I can get some more wine out of it. And I have emptied this completely now, but if I leave it on the table and just wait, it will refill by itself. Modern magicians often use this container and call it a Lota bowl. The word Lota actually comes from Sanskrit language, we still call it Lota, which means a cup or a vessel. And you can see again, I can pour some more wine. These Lota Bowls originated in India nearly 2000 years ago and British Magicians took it from street magicians of India just 200 years ago. This is a very clever trick and it is still very effective on spectators, many people get completely confused by this lota bowl.
So, how does the lota bowl work? This jar actually has 2 chambers inside. When it looks like I completely empty this jar, there is another secret chamber which is still holding some liquid. This is how the jar actually looks inside. And If you observe carefully, you can see that there is a small hole near the top of the jar. There is also a small hole at the bottom. So when I fill this jar, both chambers will have the same level of water. But if I close the top hole, there would be no atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid inside the secret chamber. This means that the water from the secret chamber will not go back into the main chamber through the bottom hole. This is why, I am able to close this hole and pretend to empty out all the liquid, while the secret chamber still has a lot of liquid inside. Now, understand that these magic jars were used more than 2000 years ago in ancient India. This means that ancient people not only understood the concept of atmospheric pressure and its effect on liquids but also used it for entertainment, more than 2000 years ago.
I hope you enjoyed watching these ancient magic jars. I am Praveen Mohan, thanks a lot for watching, don’t forget to subscribe and also click on the bell button to get all the updates. Please give this video a thumbs up and share it with your friends and I will talk to you soon. Bye!

Praveen Mohan